# Video presentation on Machine Learning, Data Science, NLP and Big Data – Part 4

In this presentation I demonstrate some Shiny R apps that I have developed. The demo also includes googleMotion Charts using googleVis

# Video presentation on Machine Learning, Data Science, NLP and Big Data – Part 3

This presentation includes the 3 part and touches upon Apache Edgent, NLP and Big Data with Spark.

# Video presentation on Machine Learning, Data Science, NLP and Big Data – Part 2

Here is the 1st part of my video presentation on “Machine Learning, Data Science, NLP and Big Data – Part 2”

# Video presentation on Machine Learning, Data Science, NLP and Big Data – Part 1

Here is the 1st part of my video presentation on “Machine Learning, Data Science, NLP and Big Data – Part 1”

# Analyzing World Bank data with WDI, googleVis Motion Charts

Recently I was surfing the web, when I came across a real cool post New R package to access World Bank data, by Markus Gesmann on using googleVis and motion charts with World Bank Data. The post also introduced me to Hans Rosling, Professor of Sweden’s Karolinska Institute. Hans Rosling, the creator of the famous Gapminder chart, the “Heath and Wealth of Nations” displays global trends through animated charts (A must see!!!). As they say, in Hans Rosling’s hands, data dances and sings. Take a look at some of his Ted talks for e.g. Hans Rosling:New insights on poverty. Prof Rosling developed the breakthrough software behind the visualizations, in the Gapminder. The free software, which can be loaded with any data – was purchased by Google in March 2007.

In this post, I recreate some of the Gapminder charts with the help of R packages WDI and googleVis. The WDI  package of  Vincent Arel-Bundock, provides a set of really useful functions to get to data based on the World Bank Data indicators.  googleVis provides motion charts with which you can animate the data.. Incidentally Datacamp has a very nice, short course on googleVis “Having fun with googleVis

You can clone/download the code from Github at worldBankAnalysis which is in the form of an Rmd file.

library(WDI)
library(ggplot2)
library(plyr)

## 1.Get the data from 1960 to 2016 for the following

1. Population – SP.POP.TOTL
2. GDP in US $– NY.GDP.MKTP.CD 3. Life Expectancy at birth (Years) – SP.DYN.LE00.IN 4. GDP Per capita income – NY.GDP.PCAP.PP.CD 5. Fertility rate (Births per woman) – SP.DYN.TFRT.IN 6. Poverty headcount ratio – SI.POV.2DAY # World population total population = WDI(indicator='SP.POP.TOTL', country="all",start=1960, end=2016) # GDP in US$
gdp= WDI(indicator='NY.GDP.MKTP.CD', country="all",start=1960, end=2016)
# Life expectancy at birth (Years)
lifeExpectancy= WDI(indicator='SP.DYN.LE00.IN', country="all",start=1960, end=2016)
# GDP Per capita
income = WDI(indicator='NY.GDP.PCAP.PP.CD', country="all",start=1960, end=2016)
# Fertility rate (births per woman)
fertility = WDI(indicator='SP.DYN.TFRT.IN', country="all",start=1960, end=2016)
poverty= WDI(indicator='SI.POV.2DAY', country="all",start=1960, end=2016)

## 2.Rename the columns

names(population)[3]="Total population"
names(lifeExpectancy)[3]="Life Expectancy (Years)"
names(gdp)[3]="GDP (US$)" names(income)[3]="GDP per capita income" names(fertility)[3]="Fertility (Births per woman)" names(poverty)[3]="Poverty headcount ratio" ## 3.Join the data frames Join the individual data frames to one large wide data frame with all the indicators for the countries    j1 <- join(population, gdp) j2 <- join(j1,lifeExpectancy) j3 <- join(j2,income) j4 <- join(j3,poverty) wbData <- join(j4,fertility)  ## 4.Use WDI_data Use WDI_data to get the list of indicators and the countries. Join the countries and region #This returns list of 2 matrixes wdi_data =WDI_data # The 1st matrix is the list is the set of all World Bank Indicators indicators=wdi_data[[1]] # The 2nd matrix gives the set of countries and regions countries=wdi_data[[2]] df = as.data.frame(countries) aa <- df$region != "Aggregates"
# Remove the aggregates
countries_df <- df[aa,]
# Subset from the development data only those corresponding to the countries
bb = subset(wbData, country %in% countries_df$country) cc = join(bb,countries_df) dd = complete.cases(cc) developmentDF = cc[dd,] ## 5.Create and display the motion chart gg<- gvisMotionChart(cc, idvar = "country", timevar = "year", xvar = "GDP", yvar = "Life Expectancy", sizevar ="Population", colorvar = "region") plot(gg) cat(gg$html$chart, file="chart1.html")  Note: Unfortunately it is not possible to embed the motion chart in WordPress. It is has to hosted on a server as a Webpage. After exploring several possibilities I came up with the following process to display the animation graph. The plot is saved as a html file using ‘cat’ as shown above. The chart1.html page is then hosted as a Github page (gh-page) on Github. Here is the ggvisMotionChart Do give World Bank Motion Chart1 a spin. Here is how the Motion Chart has to be used You can select Life Expectancy, Population, Fertility etc by clicking the black arrows. The blue arrow shows the ‘play’ button to set animate the motion chart. You can also select the countries and change the size of the circles. Do give it a try. Here are some quick analysis by playing around with the motion charts with different parameters chosen The set of charts below are screenshots captured by running the motion chart World Bank Motion Chart1 a. Life Expectancy vs Fertility chart This chart is used by Hans Rosling in his Ted talk. The left chart shows low life expectancy and high fertility rate for several sub Saharan and East Asia Pacific countries in the early 1960’s. Today the fertility has dropped and the life expectancy has increased overall. However the sub Saharan countries still have a high fertility rate b. Population vs GDP The chart below shows that GDP of India and China have the same GDP from 1973-1994 with US and Japan well ahead. From 1998- 2014 China really pulls away from India and Japan as seen below c. Per capita income vs Life Expectancy In the 1990’s the per capita income and life expectancy of the sub -saharan countries are low (42-50). Japan and US have a good life expectancy in 1990’s. In 2014 the per capita income of the sub-saharan countries are still low though the life expectancy has marginally improved. d. Population vs Poverty headcount In the early 1990’s China had a higher poverty head count ratio than India. By 2004 China had this all figured out and the poverty head count ratio drops significantly. This can also be seen in the chart below. In the chart above China shows a drastic reduction in poverty headcount ratio vs India. Strangely Zambia shows an increase in the poverty head count ratio. ## 6.Get the data for the 2nd set of indicators 1. Total population – SP.POP.TOTL 2. GDP in US$ – NY.GDP.MKTP.CD
4. Electricity consumption KWh per capita -EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC
5. CO2 emissions -EN.ATM.CO2E.KT
6. Sanitation Access – SH.STA.ACSN
# World population
population = WDI(indicator='SP.POP.TOTL', country="all",start=1960, end=2016)
# GDP in US $gdp= WDI(indicator='NY.GDP.MKTP.CD', country="all",start=1960, end=2016) # Access to electricity (% population) elecAccess= WDI(indicator='EG.ELC.ACCS.ZS', country="all",start=1960, end=2016) # Electric power consumption Kwh per capita elecConsumption= WDI(indicator='EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC', country="all",start=1960, end=2016) #CO2 emissions co2Emissions= WDI(indicator='EN.ATM.CO2E.KT', country="all",start=1960, end=2016) # Access to sanitation (% population) sanitationAccess= WDI(indicator='SH.STA.ACSN', country="all",start=1960, end=2016) ## 7.Rename the columns names(population)[3]="Total population" names(gdp)[3]="GDP US($)"
names(elecConsumption)[3]="Electric power consumption (KWH per capita)"
names(co2Emissions)[3]="CO2 emisions"
names(sanitationAccess)[3]="Access to sanitation(% popn)"

## 8.Join the individual data frames

Join the individual data frames to one large wide data frame with all the indicators for the countries


j1 <- join(population, gdp)
j2 <- join(j1,elecAccess)
j3 <- join(j2,elecConsumption)
j4 <- join(j3,co2Emissions)
wbData1 <- join(j3,sanitationAccess)


## 9.Use WDI_data

Use WDI_data to get the list of indicators and the countries. Join the countries and region

#This returns  list of 2 matrixes
wdi_data =WDI_data
# The 1st matrix is the list is the set of all World Bank Indicators
indicators=wdi_data[[1]]
# The 2nd  matrix gives the set of countries and regions
countries=wdi_data[[2]]
df = as.data.frame(countries)
aa <- df$region != "Aggregates" # Remove the aggregates countries_df <- df[aa,] # Subset from the development data only those corresponding to the countries ee = subset(wbData1, country %in% countries_df$country)
ff = join(ee,countries_df)
## Joining by: iso2c, country

## 10.Create and display the motion chart

gg1<- gvisMotionChart(ff,
idvar = "country",
timevar = "year",
xvar = "GDP",
sizevar ="Population",
colorvar = "region")
plot(gg1)
cat(gg1$html$chart, file="chart2.html")


This is World Bank Motion Chart2  which has a different set of parameters like Access to Energy, CO2 emissions etc

The set of charts below are screenshots of the motion chart World Bank Motion Chart 2

The above chart shows that in China 100% population have access to electricity. India has made decent progress from 50% in 1990 to 79% in 2012. However Pakistan seems to have been much better in providing access to electricity. Pakistan moved from 59% to close 98% access to electricity

b. Power consumption vs population

The above chart shows the Power consumption vs Population. China and India have proportionally much lower consumption that Norway, US, Canada

c. CO2 emissions vs Population

In 1963 the CO2 emissions were fairly low and about comparable for all countries. US, India have shown a steady increase while China shows a steep increase. Interestingly UK shows a drop in CO2 emissions

India shows an improvement but it has a long way to go with only 40% of population with access to sanitation. China has made much better strides with 80% having access to sanitation in 2015. Strangely Nigeria shows a drop in sanitation by almost about 20% of population.

The code is available at Github at worldBankAnalysys

Conclusion: So there you have it. I have shown some screenshots of some sample parameters of the World indicators. Please try to play around with World Bank Motion Chart1 & World Bank Motion Chart 2  with your own set of parameters and countries.  You can also create your own motion chart from the 100s of WDI indicators avaialable at  World Bank Data indicator.

Finally, I  would really like to thank Prof Hans Rosling, googleVis and  WDI (Vincent  Arel-Bundock) for making this visualization possible!

To see all posts Index of posts

# Introduction

This is a post I have been wanting to write for several months, but had to put it off for one reason or another. In this post I use my R package cricketr to analyze the performance of All-rounder greats namely Kapil Dev, Ian Botham, Imran Khan and Richard Hadlee. All these players had talent that was natural and raw. They were good strikers of the ball and extremely lethal with their bowling. The ODI data for these players have been taken from ESPN Cricinfo.

You can also read this post at Rpubs as cricketr-AR. Dowload this report as a PDF file from cricketr-AR

Note: If you would like to do a similar analysis for a different set of batsman and bowlers, you can clone/download my skeleton cricketr template from Github (which is the R Markdown file I have used for the analysis below). You will only need to make appropriate changes for the players you are interested in. Just a familiarity with R and R Markdown only is needed.

All Rounders

1. Kapil Dev (Ind)
2. Ian Botham (Eng)
3. Imran Khan (Pak)

I have sprinkled the plots with a few of my comments. Feel free to draw your conclusions! The analysis is included below

if (!require("cricketr")){
install.packages("cricketr",)
}

library(cricketr)

The data for any particular ODI player can be obtained with the getPlayerDataOD() function. To do you will need to go to ESPN CricInfo Playerand type in the name of the player for e.g Kapil Dev, etc. This will bring up a page which have the profile number for the player e.g. for Kapil Dev this would be http://www.espncricinfo.com/india/content/player/30028.html. Hence, Kapils’s profile is 30028. This can be used to get the data for Kapil Dev’s data as shown below. I have already executed the below 4 commands and I will use the files to run further commands

#kapil1 <- getPlayerDataOD(30028,dir="..",file="kapil1.csv",type="batting")
#botham11 <- getPlayerDataOD(9163,dir="..",file="botham1.csv",type="batting")
#imran1 <- getPlayerDataOD(40560,dir="..",file="imran1.csv",type="batting")
#hadlee1 <- getPlayerDataOD(37224,dir="..",file="hadlee1.csv",type="batting")

## Analyses of batting performances of the All Rounders

The following plots gives the analysis of the 4 ODI batsmen

1. Kapil Dev (Ind) – Innings – 225, Runs = 3783, Average=23.79, Strike Rate= 95.07
2. Ian Botham (Eng) – Innings – 116, Runs= 2113, Average=23.21, Strike Rate= 79.10
3. Imran Khan (Pak) – Innings – 175, Runs= 3709, Average=33.41, Strike Rate= 72.65
4. Richard Hadlee (NZ) – Innings – 115, Runs= 1751, Average=21.61, Strike Rate= 75.50

## Plot of 4s, 6s and the scoring rate in ODIs

The 3 charts below give the number of

1. 4s vs Runs scored
2. 6s vs Runs scored
3. Balls faced vs Runs scored

A regression line is fitted in each of these plots for each of the ODI batsmen

A. Kapil Dev
It can be seen that Kapil scores four 4’s when he scores 50. Also after facing 50 deliveries he scores around 43

par(mfrow=c(1,3))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
batsman4s("./kapil1.csv","Kapil")
batsman6s("./kapil1.csv","Kapil")
batsmanScoringRateODTT("./kapil1.csv","Kapil")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

B. Ian Botham
Botham scores around 39 runs after 50 deliveries

par(mfrow=c(1,3))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
batsman4s("./botham1.csv","Botham")
batsman6s("./botham1.csv","Botham")
batsmanScoringRateODTT("./botham1.csv","Botham")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

C. Imran Khan
Imran scores around 36 runs for 50 deliveries

par(mfrow=c(1,3))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
batsman4s("./imran1.csv","Imran")
batsman6s("./imran1.csv","Imran")
batsmanScoringRateODTT("./imran1.csv","Imran")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

Hadlee also scores around 30 runs facing 50 deliveries

par(mfrow=c(1,3))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
batsmanScoringRateODTT("./hadlee1.csv","Hadlee")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

## Cumulative Average runs of batsman in career

Kapils cumulative avrerage runs drops towards the last 15 innings wheres Botham had a good run towards the end of his career. Imran performance as a batsman really peaks towards the end with a cumulative average of almost 25 runs. Hadlee has a stead performance

par(mfrow=c(2,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
batsmanCumulativeAverageRuns("./kapil1.csv","Kapil")

batsmanCumulativeAverageRuns("./botham1.csv","Botham")

batsmanCumulativeAverageRuns("./imran1.csv","Imran")

batsmanCumulativeAverageRuns("./hadlee1.csv","Hadlee")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

## Cumulative Average strike rate of batsman in career

Kapil’s strike rate is superlative touching the 90’s steadily. Botham’s strike drops dramatically towards the latter part of his career. Imran average at a steady 75 and Hadlee averages around 85.

par(mfrow=c(2,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
batsmanCumulativeStrikeRate("./kapil1.csv","Kapil")

batsmanCumulativeStrikeRate("./botham1.csv","Botham")

batsmanCumulativeStrikeRate("./imran1.csv","Imran")

batsmanCumulativeStrikeRate("./hadlee1.csv","Hadlee")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

## Relative Mean Strike Rate

Kapil tops the strike rate among all the all-rounders. This is really a revelation to me. This can also be seen in the original data in Kapil’s strike rate is at a whopping 95.07 in comparison to Botham, Inran and Hadlee who are at 79.1,72.65 and 75.50 respectively

par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
relativeBatsmanSRODTT(frames,names)

## Relative Runs Frequency Percentage

This plot shows that Imran has a much better average runs scored over the other all rounders followed by Kapil

frames <- list("./kapil1.csv","./botham1.csv","imran1.csv","hadlee1.csv")
relativeRunsFreqPerfODTT(frames,names)

## Relative cumulative average runs in career

It can be seen clearly that Imran Khan leads the pack in cumulative average runs followed by Kapil Dev and then Botham

frames <- list("./kapil1.csv","./botham1.csv","imran1.csv","hadlee1.csv")
relativeBatsmanCumulativeAvgRuns(frames,names)

## Relative cumulative average strike rate in career

In the cumulative strike rate Hadlee and Kapil run a close race.

frames <- list("./kapil1.csv","./botham1.csv","imran1.csv","hadlee1.csv")
relativeBatsmanCumulativeStrikeRate(frames,names)

## Percent 4’s,6’s in total runs scored

The plot below shows the contrib

frames <- list("./kapil1.csv","./botham1.csv","imran1.csv","hadlee1.csv")
runs4s6s <-batsman4s6s(frames,names)

print(runs4s6s)
##                Kapil Botham Imran Hadlee
## Runs(1s,2s,3s) 72.08  66.53 77.53  73.27
## 4s             21.98  25.78 17.61  21.08
## 6s              5.94   7.68  4.86   5.65

## Runs forecast

The forecast for the batsman is shown below.

par(mfrow=c(2,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
batsmanPerfForecast("./kapil1.csv","Kapil")
batsmanPerfForecast("./botham1.csv","Botham")
batsmanPerfForecast("./imran1.csv","Imran")
batsmanPerfForecast("./hadlee1.csv","Hadlee")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

## 3D plot of Runs vs Balls Faced and Minutes at Crease

The plot is a scatter plot of Runs vs Balls faced and Minutes at Crease. A prediction plane is fitted

par(mfrow=c(1,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
battingPerf3d("./kapil1.csv","Kapil")
battingPerf3d("./botham1.csv","Botham")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1
par(mfrow=c(1,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
battingPerf3d("./imran1.csv","Imran")
battingPerf3d("./hadlee1.csv","Hadlee")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

## Predicting Runs given Balls Faced and Minutes at Crease

A multi-variate regression plane is fitted between Runs and Balls faced +Minutes at crease.

BF <- seq( 10, 200,length=10)
Mins <- seq(30,220,length=10)
newDF <- data.frame(BF,Mins)

kapil <- batsmanRunsPredict("./kapil1.csv","Kapil",newdataframe=newDF)
botham <- batsmanRunsPredict("./botham1.csv","Botham",newdataframe=newDF)
imran <- batsmanRunsPredict("./imran1.csv","Imran",newdataframe=newDF)
hadlee <- batsmanRunsPredict("./hadlee1.csv","Hadlee",newdataframe=newDF)

The fitted model is then used to predict the runs that the batsmen will score for a hypotheticial Balls faced and Minutes at crease. It can be seen that Kapil is the best bet for a balls faced and minutes at crease followed by Botham.

batsmen <-cbind(round(kapil$Runs),round(botham$Runs),round(imran$Runs),round(hadlee$Runs))
newDF <- data.frame(round(newDF$BF),round(newDF$Mins))
colnames(newDF) <- c("BallsFaced","MinsAtCrease")
predictedRuns <- cbind(newDF,batsmen)
predictedRuns
##    BallsFaced MinsAtCrease Kapil Botham Imran Hadlee
## 1          10           30    16      6    10     15
## 2          31           51    33     22    22     28
## 3          52           72    49     38    33     42
## 4          73           93    65     54    45     56
## 5          94          114    81     70    56     70
## 6         116          136    97     86    67     84
## 7         137          157   113    102    79     97
## 8         158          178   130    117    90    111
## 9         179          199   146    133   102    125
## 10        200          220   162    149   113    139

## Highest runs likelihood

The plots below the runs likelihood of batsman. This uses K-Means . A. Kapil Dev

batsmanRunsLikelihood("./kapil1.csv","Kapil")

## Summary of  Kapil 's runs scoring likelihood
## **************************************************
##
## There is a 34.57 % likelihood that Kapil  will make  22 Runs in  24 balls over 34  Minutes
## There is a 17.28 % likelihood that Kapil  will make  46 Runs in  46 balls over  65  Minutes
## There is a 48.15 % likelihood that Kapil  will make  5 Runs in  7 balls over 9  Minutes

B. Ian Botham

batsmanRunsLikelihood("./botham1.csv","Botham")

## Summary of  Botham 's runs scoring likelihood
## **************************************************
##
## There is a 47.95 % likelihood that Botham  will make  9 Runs in  12 balls over 15  Minutes
## There is a 39.73 % likelihood that Botham  will make  23 Runs in  32 balls over  44  Minutes
## There is a 12.33 % likelihood that Botham  will make  59 Runs in  74 balls over 101  Minutes

C. Imran Khan

batsmanRunsLikelihood("./imran1.csv","Imran")

## Summary of  Imran 's runs scoring likelihood
## **************************************************
##
## There is a 23.33 % likelihood that Imran  will make  36 Runs in  54 balls over 74  Minutes
## There is a 60 % likelihood that Imran  will make  14 Runs in  18 balls over  23  Minutes
## There is a 16.67 % likelihood that Imran  will make  53 Runs in  90 balls over 115  Minutes

batsmanRunsLikelihood("./hadlee1.csv","Hadlee")

## Summary of  Hadlee 's runs scoring likelihood
## **************************************************
##
## There is a 6.1 % likelihood that Hadlee  will make  64 Runs in  79 balls over 90  Minutes
## There is a 42.68 % likelihood that Hadlee  will make  25 Runs in  33 balls over  44  Minutes
## There is a 51.22 % likelihood that Hadlee  will make  9 Runs in  11 balls over 15  Minutes

## Average runs at ground and against opposition

A. Kapil Dev

par(mfrow=c(1,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
batsmanAvgRunsGround("./kapil1.csv","Kapil")
batsmanAvgRunsOpposition("./kapil1.csv","Kapil")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

B. Ian Botham

par(mfrow=c(1,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
batsmanAvgRunsGround("./botham1.csv","Botham")
batsmanAvgRunsOpposition("./botham1.csv","Botham")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

C. Imran Khan

par(mfrow=c(1,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
batsmanAvgRunsGround("./imran1.csv","Imran")
batsmanAvgRunsOpposition("./imran1.csv","Imran")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

par(mfrow=c(1,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
batsmanAvgRunsOpposition("./hadlee1.csv","Hadlee")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

## Moving Average of runs over career

The moving average for the 4 batsmen indicate the following

Kapil’s performance drops significantly while there is a slump in Botham’s performance. On the other hand Imran and Hadlee’s performance were on the upswing.

par(mfrow=c(2,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
batsmanMovingAverage("./kapil1.csv","Kapil")
batsmanMovingAverage("./botham1.csv","Botham")
batsmanMovingAverage("./imran1.csv","Imran")
batsmanMovingAverage("./hadlee1.csv","Hadlee")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

## Check batsmen in-form, out-of-form

[1] “**************************** Form status of Kapil ****************************\n\n
Population size: 72
Mean of population: 19.38 \n
Sample size: 9 Mean of sample: 6.78 SD of sample: 6.14 \n\n
Null hypothesis H0 : Kapil ‘s sample average is within 95% confidence interval of population average\n
Alternative hypothesis Ha : Kapil ‘s sample average is below the 95% confidence interval of population average\n\n
Kapil ‘s Form Status: Out-of-Form because the p value: 8.4e-05 is less than alpha= 0.05

“**************************** Form status of Botham ****************************\n\n
Population size: 65
Mean of population: 21.29 \n
Sample size: 8 Mean of sample: 15.38 SD of sample: 13.19 \n\n
Null hypothesis H0 : Botham ‘s sample average is within 95% confidence interval of population average\n
Alternative hypothesis Ha : Botham ‘s sample average is below the 95% confidence interval of population average\n\n
Botham ‘s Form Status: In-Form because the p value: 0.120342 is greater than alpha= 0.05 \n

“**************************** Form status of Imran ****************************\n\n
Population size: 54
Mean of population: 24.94 \n
Sample size: 6 Mean of sample: 30.83 SD of sample: 25.4 \n\n
Null hypothesis H0 : Imran ‘s sample average is within 95% confidence interval of population average\n
Alternative hypothesis Ha : Imran ‘s sample average is below the 95% confidence interval of population average\n\n
Imran ‘s Form Status: In-Form because the p value: 0.704683 is greater than alpha= 0.05 \n

“**************************** Form status of Hadlee ****************************\n\n
Population size: 73
Mean of population: 18 \n
Sample size: 9 Mean of sample: 27 SD of sample: 24.27 \n\n
Null hypothesis H0 : Hadlee ‘s sample average is within 95% confidence interval of population average\n
Alternative hypothesis Ha : Hadlee ‘s sample average is below the 95% confidence interval of population average\n\n
Hadlee ‘s Form Status: In-Form because the p value: 0.85262 is greater than alpha= 0.05 \n *******************************************************************************************\n\n”

## Analyses of bowling performances of the All Rounders

The following plots gives the analysis of the 4 ODI batsmen

1. Kapil Dev (Ind) – Innings – 225, Wickets = 253, Average=27.45, Economy Rate= 3.71
2. Ian Botham (Eng) – Innings – 116, Wickets = 145, Average=28.54, Economy Rate= 3.96
3. Imran Khan (Pak) – Innings – 175, Wickets = 182, Average=26.61, Economy Rate= 3.89
4. Richard Hadlee (NZ) – Innings – 115, Wickets = 158, Average=21.56, Economy Rate= 3.30

Botham has the highest number of innings and wickets followed closely by Mitchell. Imran and Hadlee have relatively fewer innings.

To get the bowler’s data use

#kapil2 <- getPlayerDataOD(30028,dir="..",file="kapil2.csv",type="bowling")
#botham2 <- getPlayerDataOD(9163,dir="..",file="botham2.csv",type="bowling")
#imran2 <- getPlayerDataOD(40560,dir="..",file="imran2.csv",type="bowling")
#hadlee2 <- getPlayerDataOD(37224,dir="..",file="hadlee2.csv",type="bowling")

“

# Wicket Frequency percentage

This plot gives the percentage of wickets for each wickets (1,2,3…etc).

par(mfrow=c(1,4))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
bowlerWktsFreqPercent("./kapil2.csv","Kapil")
bowlerWktsFreqPercent("./botham2.csv","Botham")
bowlerWktsFreqPercent("./imran2.csv","Imran")
bowlerWktsFreqPercent("./hadlee2.csv","Hadlee")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

## Wickets Runs plot

The plot below gives a boxplot of the runs ranges for each of the wickets taken by the bowlers.

par(mfrow=c(1,4))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))

bowlerWktsRunsPlot("./kapil2.csv","Kapil")
bowlerWktsRunsPlot("./botham2.csv","Botham")
bowlerWktsRunsPlot("./imran2.csv","Imran")
bowlerWktsRunsPlot("./hadlee2.csv","Hadlee")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

## Cumulative average wicket plot

Botham has the best cumulative average wicket touching almost 1.6 wickets followed by Hadlee

par(mfrow=c(1,3))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
bowlerCumulativeAvgWickets("./kapil2.csv","Kapil")

bowlerCumulativeAvgWickets("./botham2.csv","Botham")

bowlerCumulativeAvgWickets("./imran2.csv","Imran")

bowlerCumulativeAvgWickets("./hadlee2.csv","Hadlee")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1
par(mfrow=c(1,3))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
bowlerCumulativeAvgEconRate("./kapil2.csv","Kapil")

bowlerCumulativeAvgEconRate("./botham2.csv","Botham")

bowlerCumulativeAvgEconRate("./imran2.csv","Imran")

bowlerCumulativeAvgEconRate("./hadlee2.csv","Hadlee")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

## Average wickets in different grounds and opposition

A. Kapil Dev

par(mfrow=c(1,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
bowlerAvgWktsGround("./kapil2.csv","Kapil")
bowlerAvgWktsOpposition("./kapil2.csv","Kapil")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

B. Ian Botham

par(mfrow=c(1,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
bowlerAvgWktsGround("./botham2.csv","Botham")
bowlerAvgWktsOpposition("./botham2.csv","Botham")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

C. Imran Khan

par(mfrow=c(1,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
bowlerAvgWktsGround("./imran2.csv","Imran")
bowlerAvgWktsOpposition("./imran2.csv","Imran")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

par(mfrow=c(1,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
bowlerAvgWktsOpposition("./hadlee2.csv","Hadlee")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

## Relative bowling performance

It can be seen that Botham is the most effective wicket taker of the lot

frames <- list("./kapil2.csv","./botham2.csv","imran2.csv","hadlee2.csv")
relativeBowlingPerf(frames,names)

## Relative Economy Rate against wickets taken

Hadlee has the best overall economy rate followed by Kapil Dev

frames <- list("./kapil2.csv","./botham2.csv","imran2.csv","hadlee2.csv")
relativeBowlingERODTT(frames,names)

## Relative cumulative average wickets of bowlers in career

This plot confirms the wicket taking ability of Botham followed by Hadlee

frames <- list("./kapil2.csv","./botham2.csv","imran2.csv","hadlee2.csv")
relativeBowlerCumulativeAvgWickets(frames,names)

## Relative cumulative average economy rate of bowlers

frames <- list("./kapil2.csv","./botham2.csv","imran2.csv","hadlee2.csv")
relativeBowlerCumulativeAvgEconRate(frames,names)

## Moving average of wickets over career

This plot shows that Hadlee has the best economy rate followed by Kapil

par(mfrow=c(2,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
bowlerMovingAverage("./kapil2.csv","Kapil")
bowlerMovingAverage("./botham2.csv","Botham")
bowlerMovingAverage("./imran2.csv","Imran")
bowlerMovingAverage("./hadlee2.csv","Hadlee")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

## Wickets forecast

par(mfrow=c(2,2))
par(mar=c(4,4,2,2))
bowlerPerfForecast("./kapil2.csv","Kapil")
bowlerPerfForecast("./botham2.csv","Botham")
bowlerPerfForecast("./imran2.csv","Imran")
bowlerPerfForecast("./hadlee2.csv","Hadlee")

dev.off()
## null device
##           1

## Check bowler in-form, out-of-form

“**************************** Form status of Kapil ****************************\n\n
Population size: 198
Mean of population: 1.2 \n Sample size: 23 Mean of sample: 0.65 SD of sample: 0.83 \n\n
Null hypothesis H0 : Kapil ‘s sample average is within 95% confidence interval \n of population average\n
Alternative hypothesis Ha : Kapil ‘s sample average is below the 95% confidence\n interval of population average\n\n
Kapil ‘s Form Status: Out-of-Form because the p value: 0.002097 is less than alpha= 0.05 \n

“**************************** Form status of Botham ****************************\n\n
Population size: 166
Mean of population: 1.58 \n Sample size: 19 Mean of sample: 1.47 SD of sample: 1.12 \n\n
Null hypothesis H0 : Botham ‘s sample average is within 95% confidence interval \n of population average\n
Alternative hypothesis Ha : Botham ‘s sample average is below the 95% confidence\n interval of population average\n\n
Botham ‘s Form Status: In-Form because the p value: 0.336694 is greater than alpha= 0.05 \n

“**************************** Form status of Imran ****************************\n\n
Population size: 137
Mean of population: 1.23 \n Sample size: 16 Mean of sample: 0.81 SD of sample: 0.91 \n\n
Null hypothesis H0 : Imran ‘s sample average is within 95% confidence interval \n of population average\n
Alternative hypothesis Ha : Imran ‘s sample average is below the 95% confidence\n interval of population average\n\n
Imran ‘s Form Status: Out-of-Form because the p value: 0.041727 is less than alpha= 0.05 \n

“**************************** Form status of Hadlee ****************************\n\n
Population size: 100
Mean of population: 1.38 \n Sample size: 12 Mean of sample: 1.67 SD of sample: 1.37 \n\n
Null hypothesis H0 : Hadlee ‘s sample average is within 95% confidence interval \n of population average\n
Alternative hypothesis Ha : Hadlee ‘s sample average is below the 95% confidence\n interval of population average\n\n
Hadlee ‘s Form Status: In-Form because the p value: 0.761265 is greater than alpha= 0.05 \n *******************************************************************************************\n\n”

# Key findings

Here are some key conclusions ODI batsmen

1. Kapil Dev’s strike rate stands high above the other 3
2. Imran Khan has the best cumulative average runs followed by Kapil
3. Botham is the most effective wicket taker followed by Hadlee
4. Hadlee is the most economical bowler and is followed by Kapil Dev
5. For a hypothetical Balls Faced and Minutes at creases Kapil will score the most runs followed by Botham
6. The moving average of indicates that the best is yet to come for Imran and Hadlee. Kapil and Botham were on the decline

Also see my other posts in R

For a full list of posts see Index of posts

# IBM Data Science Experience:  First steps with yorkr

Fresh, and slightly dizzy, from my foray into Quantum Computing with IBM’s Quantum Experience, I now turn my attention to IBM’s Data Science Experience (DSE).

I am on the verge of completing a really great 3 module ‘Data Science and Engineering with Spark XSeries’ from the University of California, Berkeley and I have been thinking of trying out some form of integrated delivery platform for performing analytics, for quite some time.  Coincidentally,  IBM comes out with its Data Science Experience. a month back. There are a couple of other collaborative platforms available for playing around with Apache Spark or Data Analytics namely Jupyter notebooks, Databricks, Data.world.

I decided to go ahead with IBM’s Data Science Experience as  the GUI is a lot cooler, includes shared data sets and integrates with Object Storage, Cloudant DB etc,  which seemed a lot closer to the cloud, literally!  IBM’s DSE is an interactive, collaborative, cloud-based environment for performing data analysis with Apache Spark. DSE is hosted on IBM’s PaaS environment, Bluemix. It should be possible to access in DSE the plethora of cloud services available on Bluemix. IBM’s DSE uses Jupyter notebooks for creating and analyzing data which can be easily shared and has access to a few hundred publicly available datasets

Disclaimer: This article represents the author’s viewpoint only and doesn’t necessarily represent IBM’s positions, strategies or opinions

In this post, I use IBM’s DSE and my R package yorkr, for analyzing the performance of 1 ODI match (Aus-Ind, 2 Feb 2012)  and the batting performance of Virat Kohli in IPL matches. These are my ‘first’ steps in DSE so, I use plain old “R language” for analysis together with my R package ‘yorkr’. I intend to  do more interesting stuff on Machine learning with SparkR, Sparklyr and PySpark in the weeks and months to come.

You can checkout the Jupyter notebooks created with IBM’s DSE Y at Github  – “Using R package yorkr – A quick overview’ and  on NBviewer at “Using R package yorkr – A quick overview

Working with Jupyter notebooks are fairly straight forward which can handle code in R, Python and Scala. Each cell can either contain code (Python or Scala), Markdown text, NBConvert or Heading. The code is written into the cells and can be executed sequentially. Here is a screen shot of the notebook.

The ‘File’ menu can be used for ‘saving and checkpointing’ or ‘reverting’ to a checkpoint. The ‘kernel’ menu can be used to start, interrupt, restart and run all cells etc. Data Sources icon can be used to load data sources to your code. The data is uploaded to Object Storage with appropriate credentials. You will have to  import this data from Object Storage using the credentials. In my notebook with yorkr I directly load the data from Github.  You can use the sharing to share the notebook. The shared notebook has an extension ‘ipynb’. You can use the ‘Sharing’ icon  to share the notebook. The shared notebook has an extension ‘ipynb’. You an import this notebook directly into your environment and can get started with the code available in the notebook.

You can import existing R, Python or Scala notebooks as shown below. My notebook ‘Using R package yorkr – A quick overview’ can be downloaded using the link ‘yorkrWithDSE’ and clicking the green download icon on top right corner.

I have also uploaded the file to Github and you can download from here too ‘yorkrWithDSE’. This notebook can be imported into your DSE as shown below

Jupyter notebooks have been integrated with Github and are rendered directly from Github.  You can view my Jupyter notebook here  – “Using R package yorkr – A quick overview’. You can also view it on NBviewer at “Using R package yorkr – A quick overview

So there it is. You can download my notebook, import it into IBM’s Data Science Experience and then use data from ‘yorkrData” as shown. As already mentioned yorkrData contains converted data for ODIs, T20 and IPL. For details on how to use my R package yorkr  please my posts on yorkr at “Index of posts

Hope you have fun playing wit IBM’s Data Science Experience and my package yorkr.

I will be exploring IBM’s DSE in weeks and months to come in the areas of Machine Learning with SparkR,SparklyR or pySpark.

Watch this space!!!

Disclaimer: This article represents the author’s viewpoint only and doesn’t necessarily represent IBM’s positions, strategies or opinions

Also see

To see all my posts check
Index of posts

# Introducing QCSimulator: A 5-qubit quantum computing simulator in R

## Introduction

My 5-qubit Quantum Computing Simulator,QCSimulator, is finally ready, and here it is! I have been able to successfully complete this simulator by working through a fair amount of material. To a large extent, the simulator is easy, if one understands how to solve the quantum circuit. However the theory behind quantum computing itself, is quite formidable, and I hope to scale this mountain over a period of time.

QCSimulator is now on CRAN!!!

The code for the QCSimulator package is also available at Github QCSimulator. This post has also been published at Rpubs as QCSimulator and can be downloaded as a PDF document at QCSimulator.pdf

Disclaimer: This article represents the author’s viewpoint only and doesn’t necessarily represent IBM’s positions, strategies or opinions

install.packages("QCSimulator")
library(QCSimulator)
library(ggplot2)

### 1. Initialize the environment and set global variables

Here I initialize the environment with global variables and then display a few of them.

rm(list=ls())
#Call the init function to initialize the environment and create global variables
init()

# Display some of global variables in environment
ls()
##  [1] "I16"     "I2"      "I4"      "I8"      "q0_"     "q00_"    "q000_"
##  [8] "q0000_"  "q00000_" "q00001_" "q0001_"  "q00010_" "q00011_" "q001_"
## [15] "q0010_"  "q00100_" "q00101_" "q0011_"  "q00110_" "q00111_" "q01_"
## [22] "q010_"   "q0100_"  "q01000_" "q01001_" "q0101_"  "q01010_" "q01011_"
## [29] "q011_"   "q0110_"  "q01100_" "q01101_" "q0111_"  "q01111_" "q1_"
## [36] "q10_"    "q100_"   "q1000_"  "q10000_" "q10001_" "q1001_"  "q10010_"
## [43] "q10011_" "q101_"   "q1010_"  "q10100_" "q10101_" "q1011_"  "q10110_"
## [50] "q10111_" "q11_"    "q110_"   "q1100_"  "q11000_" "q11001_" "q1101_"
## [57] "q11010_" "q11011_" "q111_"   "q1110_"  "q11100_" "q11101_" "q1111_"
## [64] "q11110_" "q11111_"
#1. 2 x 2 Identity matrix
I2
##      [,1] [,2]
## [1,]    1    0
## [2,]    0    1
#2. 8 x 8 Identity matrix
I8
##      [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] [,7] [,8]
## [1,]    1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
## [2,]    0    1    0    0    0    0    0    0
## [3,]    0    0    1    0    0    0    0    0
## [4,]    0    0    0    1    0    0    0    0
## [5,]    0    0    0    0    1    0    0    0
## [6,]    0    0    0    0    0    1    0    0
## [7,]    0    0    0    0    0    0    1    0
## [8,]    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    1
#3. Qubit |00>
q00_
##      [,1]
## [1,]    1
## [2,]    0
## [3,]    0
## [4,]    0
#4. Qubit |010>
q010_
##      [,1]
## [1,]    0
## [2,]    0
## [3,]    1
## [4,]    0
## [5,]    0
## [6,]    0
## [7,]    0
## [8,]    0
#5. Qubit |0100>
q0100_
##       [,1]
##  [1,]    0
##  [2,]    0
##  [3,]    0
##  [4,]    0
##  [5,]    1
##  [6,]    0
##  [7,]    0
##  [8,]    0
##  [9,]    0
## [10,]    0
## [11,]    0
## [12,]    0
## [13,]    0
## [14,]    0
## [15,]    0
## [16,]    0
#6. Qubit 10010
q10010_
##       [,1]
##  [1,]    0
##  [2,]    0
##  [3,]    0
##  [4,]    0
##  [5,]    0
##  [6,]    0
##  [7,]    0
##  [8,]    0
##  [9,]    0
## [10,]    0
## [11,]    0
## [12,]    0
## [13,]    0
## [14,]    0
## [15,]    0
## [16,]    0
## [17,]    0
## [18,]    0
## [19,]    1
## [20,]    0
## [21,]    0
## [22,]    0
## [23,]    0
## [24,]    0
## [25,]    0
## [26,]    0
## [27,]    0
## [28,]    0
## [29,]    0
## [30,]    0
## [31,]    0
## [32,]    0

The QCSimulator implements the following gates

1. Pauli X,Y,Z, S,S’, T, T’ gates
3. 2,3,4,5 qubit CNOT gates e.g CNOT2_01,CNOT3_20,CNOT4_13 etc
4. Toffoli State,SWAPQ0Q1

### 2. To display the unitary matrix of gates

To check the unitary matrix of gates, we need to pass the appropriate identity matrix as an argument. Hence below the qubit gates require a 2 x 2 unitary matrix and the 2 & 3 qubit CNOT gates require a 4 x 4 and 8 x 8 identity matrix respectively

PauliX(I2)
##      [,1] [,2]
## [1,]    0    1
## [2,]    1    0
Hadamard(I2)
##           [,1]       [,2]
## [1,] 0.7071068  0.7071068
## [2,] 0.7071068 -0.7071068
S1Gate(I2)
##      [,1] [,2]
## [1,] 1+0i 0+0i
## [2,] 0+0i 0-1i
CNOT2_10(I4)
##      [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4]
## [1,]    1    0    0    0
## [2,]    0    0    0    1
## [3,]    0    0    1    0
## [4,]    0    1    0    0
CNOT3_20(I8)
##      [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] [,7] [,8]
## [1,]    1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
## [2,]    0    0    0    0    0    1    0    0
## [3,]    0    0    1    0    0    0    0    0
## [4,]    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    1
## [5,]    0    0    0    0    1    0    0    0
## [6,]    0    1    0    0    0    0    0    0
## [7,]    0    0    0    0    0    0    1    0
## [8,]    0    0    0    1    0    0    0    0

### 3. Compute the inner product of vectors

For example of phi = 1/2|0> + sqrt(3)/2|1> and si= 1/sqrt(2)(10> + |1>) then the inner product is the dot product of the vectors

phi = matrix(c(1/2,sqrt(3)/2),nrow=2,ncol=1)
si = matrix(c(1/sqrt(2),1/sqrt(2)),nrow=2,ncol=1)
angle= innerProduct(phi,si)
cat("Angle between vectors is:",angle)
## Angle between vectors is: 15

### 4. Compute the dagger function for a gate

The gate dagger computes and displays the transpose of the complex conjugate of the matrix

TGate(I2)
##      [,1]                 [,2]
## [1,] 1+0i 0.0000000+0.0000000i
## [2,] 0+0i 0.7071068+0.7071068i
GateDagger(TGate(I2))
##      [,1]                 [,2]
## [1,] 1+0i 0.0000000+0.0000000i
## [2,] 0+0i 0.7071068-0.7071068i

### 5. Invoking gates in series

The Quantum gates can be chained by passing each preceding Quantum gate as the argument. The final gate in the chain will have the qubit or the identity matrix passed to it.

# Call in reverse order
# Superposition states
# |+> state
Hadamard(q0_)
##           [,1]
## [1,] 0.7071068
## [2,] 0.7071068
# |-> ==> H x Z
PauliZ(Hadamard(q0_))
##            [,1]
## [1,]  0.7071068
## [2,] -0.7071068
# (+i) Y ==> H x  S
SGate(Hadamard(q0_))
##                      [,1]
## [1,] 0.7071068+0.0000000i
## [2,] 0.0000000+0.7071068i
# (-i)Y ==> H x S1
S1Gate(Hadamard(q0_))
##                      [,1]
## [1,] 0.7071068+0.0000000i
## [2,] 0.0000000-0.7071068i
# Q1 -- TGate- Hadamard
Q1 = Hadamard(TGate(I2))

### 6. More gates in series

#### TGate of depth 2

The Quantum circuit for a TGate of Depth 2 is

Implementing the quantum gates in series in reverse order we have

# Invoking this in reverse order we get
result=measurement(a)

plotMeasurement(result)

### 7. Invoking gates in parallel

To obtain the results of gates in parallel we have to take the Tensor Product Note:In the TensorProduct invocation the Identity matrix is passed as an argument to get the unitary matrix of the gate. Q0 – Hadamard-Measurement Q1 – Identity- Measurement

#
b = DotProduct(a,q00_)
plotMeasurement(measurement(b))

a = TensorProd(PauliZ(I2),Hadamard(I2))
b = DotProduct(a,q00_)
plotMeasurement(measurement(b))

### 8. Measurement

The measurement of a Quantum circuit can be obtained using the measurement function. Consider the following Quantum circuit
Q0 – H-T-H-T-S-H-T-H-T-H-T-H-S-Measurement where H – Hadamard gate, T – T Gate and S- S Gate

a = SGate(Hadamard(TGate(Hadamard(TGate(Hadamard(TGate(Hadamard(SGate(TGate(Hadamard(TGate(Hadamard(I2)))))))))))))
measurement(a)
##          0        1
## v 0.890165 0.109835

### 9. Plot measurement

Using the same example as above Q0 – H-T-H-T-S-H-T-H-T-H-T-H-S-Measurement where H – Hadamard gate, T – T Gate and S- S Gate we can plot the measurement

a = SGate(Hadamard(TGate(Hadamard(TGate(Hadamard(TGate(Hadamard(SGate(TGate(Hadamard(TGate(Hadamard(I2)))))))))))))
result = measurement(a)
plotMeasurement(result)

### 10. Evaluating a Quantum Circuit

The above procedures for evaluating a quantum gates in series and parallel can be used to evalute more complex quantum circuits where the quantum gates are in series and in parallel.

Here is an evaluation of one such circuit, the Bell ZQ state using the QCSimulator (from IBM’s Quantum Experience)

# 1st composite
# Output of CNOT
b = CNOT2_01(a)
# 2nd series
#3rd composite
d= TensorProd(I2,c)
# Output of 2nd composite
e = DotProduct(b,d)
#Action of quantum circuit on |00>
f = DotProduct(e,q00_)
result= measurement(f)
plotMeasurement(result)

### 11. Toffoli State

This circuit for this comes from IBM’s Quantum Experience. This circuit is available in the package. This is how the state was constructed. This circuit is shown below

The implementation of the above circuit in QCSimulator is as below

  # Computation of the Toffoli State
H=1/sqrt(2) * matrix(c(1,1,1,-1),nrow=2,ncol=2)
I=matrix(c(1,0,0,1),nrow=2,ncol=2)

# 1st composite
# H x H x H
a = TensorProd(TensorProd(H,H),H)
# 1st CNOT
a1= CNOT3_12(a)

# 2nd composite
# I x I x T1Gate
b = TensorProd(TensorProd(I,I),T1Gate(I))
b1 = DotProduct(b,a1)
c = CNOT3_02(b1)

# 3rd composite
# I x I x TGate
d = TensorProd(TensorProd(I,I),TGate(I))
d1 = DotProduct(d,c)
e = CNOT3_12(d1)

# 4th composite
# I x I x T1Gate
f = TensorProd(TensorProd(I,I),T1Gate(I))
f1 = DotProduct(f,e)
g = CNOT3_02(f1)

#5th composite
# I x T x T
h = TensorProd(TensorProd(I,TGate(I)),TGate(I))
h1 = DotProduct(h,g)
i = CNOT3_12(h1)

#6th composite
# I x H x H
j1 = DotProduct(j,i)
k = CNOT3_12(j1)

# 7th composite
# I x H x H
l1 = DotProduct(l,k)
m = CNOT3_12(l1)
n = CNOT3_02(m)

#8th composite
# T x H x T1
o1 = DotProduct(o,n)
p = CNOT3_02(o1)
result = measurement(p)
plotMeasurement(result)

### 12. GHZ YYX measurement

Here is another Quantum circuit, namely the entangled GHZ YYX state. This is

and is implemented in QCSimulator as

# Composite 1
b= CNOT3_12(a)
c= CNOT3_02(b)
# Composite 2
e= DotProduct(d,c)
#Composite 3
g= DotProduct(f,e)
#Composite 4
j = DotProduct(i,g)
result=measurement(j)
plotMeasurement(result)

## Conclusion

The 5 qubit Quantum Computing Simulator is now fully functional. I hope to add more gates and functionality in the months to come.

Feel free to install the package from Github and give it a try.

Disclaimer: This article represents the author’s viewpoint only and doesn’t necessarily represent IBM’s positions, strategies or opinions

References

My other posts on Quantum Computing

You may also like
For more posts on other topics like Cloud Computing, IBM Bluemix, Distributed Computing, OpenCV, R, cricket please check my Index of posts

# Taking a closer look at Quantum gates and their operations

This post is a continuation of my earlier post ‘Exploring Quantum gate operations with QCSimulator’. Here I take a closer look at more quantum gates and their operations, besides implementing these new gates in my Quantum Computing simulator, the  QCSimulator in R.

Disclaimer: This article represents the author’s viewpoint only and doesn’t necessarily represent IBM’s positions, strategies or opinions

In  quantum circuits, gates  are unitary matrices which operate on 1,2 or 3 qubit systems which are represented as below

1 qubit
|0> = $\begin{pmatrix}1\\0\end{pmatrix}$ and |1> = $\begin{pmatrix}0\\1\end{pmatrix}$

2 qubits
|0> $\otimes$ |0> = $\begin{pmatrix}1\\ 0\\ 0\\0\end{pmatrix}$
|0> $\otimes$ |1> = $\begin{pmatrix}0\\ 1\\ 0\\0\end{pmatrix}$
|1> $\otimes$ |o> = $\begin{pmatrix}0\\ 0\\ 1\\0\end{pmatrix}$
|1> $\otimes$ |1> = $\begin{pmatrix}0\\ 0\\ 0\\1\end{pmatrix}$

3 qubits
|0> $\otimes$ |0> $\otimes$ |0> = $\begin{pmatrix}1\\ 0\\0\\ 0\\ 0\\0\\ 0\\0\end{pmatrix}$
|0> $\otimes$ |0> $\otimes$ |1> = $\begin{pmatrix}0\\ 1\\0\\ 0\\ 0\\0\\ 0\\0\end{pmatrix}$
|0> $\otimes$ |1> $\otimes$ |0> = $\begin{pmatrix}0\\ 0\\1\\ 0\\ 0\\0\\ 0\\0\end{pmatrix}$

|1> $\otimes$ |1> $\otimes$ |1> = $\begin{pmatrix}0\\ 0\\0\\ 0\\ 0\\0\\ 0\\1\end{pmatrix}$
Hence single qubit is represented as 2 x 1 matrix, 2 qubit as 4 x 1 matrix and 3 qubit as 8 x 1 matrix

1) Composing Quantum gates in series
When quantum gates are connected in a series. The overall effect of the these quantum gates in series is obtained my taking the dot product of the unitary gates in reverse. For e.g.

In the following picture the effect of the quantum gates A,B,C is the dot product of the gates taken reverse order
result = C . B . A

This overall action of the 3 quantum gates can be represented by a single ‘transfer’ matrix which is the dot product of the gates

If we had a Pauli X followed by a Hadamard gate the combined effect of these gates on the inputs can be deduced by constructing a truth table

 Input Pauli X – Output A’ Hadamard – Output B |0> |1> 1/√2(|0>  – |1>) |1> |0> 1/√2(|0>  + |1>)

Or

|0> -> 1/√2(|0>  – |1>)
|1> -> 1/√2(|0>  + |1>)
which is
$\begin{pmatrix}1\\0\end{pmatrix}$  ->1/√2 $\begin{pmatrix}1\\0\end{pmatrix}$$\begin{pmatrix}0\\1\end{pmatrix}$ = 1/√2  $\begin{pmatrix}1\\-1\end{pmatrix}$
$\begin{pmatrix}0\\1\end{pmatrix}$  ->1/√2 $\begin{pmatrix}1\\0\end{pmatrix}$ + $\begin{pmatrix}0\\1\end{pmatrix}$ = 1/√2  $\begin{pmatrix}1\\1\end{pmatrix}$
Therefore the ‘transfer’ matrix can be written as
T = 1/√2 $\begin{pmatrix}1 & 1\\ -1 & 1\end{pmatrix}$

2)Quantum gates in parallel
When quantum gates are in parallel then the composite effect of the gates can be obtained by taking the tensor product of the quantum gates.

If we consider the combined action of a Pauli X gate and a Hadamard gate in parallel

 A B A’ B’ |0> |0> |1> 1/√2(|0>  + |1>) |0> |1> |1> 1/√2(|0>  – |1>) |1> |0> |0> 1/√2(|0>  + |1>) |1> |1> |0> 1/√2(|0>  – |1>)

Or

|00> => |1> $\otimes$ 1/√2(|0>  + |1>) = 1/√2 (|10> + |11>)
|01> => |1> $\otimes$ 1/√2(|0>  – |1>) = 1/√2 (|10> – |11>)
|10> => |0> $\otimes$ 1/√2(|0>  + |1>) = 1/√2 (|00> + |01>)
|11> => |0> $\otimes$ 1/√2(|0>  – |1>) = 1/√2 (|10> – |11>)

|00> = $\begin{pmatrix}1\\ 0\\ 0\\0\end{pmatrix}$ =>1/√2$\begin{pmatrix} 0\\ 0\\ 1\\ 1\end{pmatrix}$
|01> = $\begin{pmatrix}0\\ 1\\ 0\\0\end{pmatrix}$ =>1/√2$\begin{pmatrix} 0\\ 0\\ 1\\ -1\end{pmatrix}$
|10> = $\begin{pmatrix}0\\ 0\\ 1\\0\end{pmatrix}$ =>1/√2$\begin{pmatrix} 1\\ 0\\ 1\\ -1\end{pmatrix}$
|11> = $\begin{pmatrix}0\\ 0\\ 0\\1\end{pmatrix}$ =>1/√2$\begin{pmatrix} 1\\ 0\\ -1\\ -1\end{pmatrix}$

Here are more Quantum gates
a) Rotation gate
$U = \begin{pmatrix}cos\theta & -sin\theta\\ sin\theta & cos\theta\end{pmatrix}$

b) Toffoli gate
The Toffoli gate flips the 3rd qubit if the 1st and 2nd qubit are |1>

 Toffoli gate Input Output |000> |000> |001> |001> |010> |010> |011> |011> |100> |100> |101> |101> |110> |111> |111> |110>

c) Fredkin gate
The Fredkin gate swaps the 2nd and 3rd qubits if the 1st qubit is |1>

 Fredkin gate Input Output |000> |000> |001> |001> |010> |010> |011> |011> |100> |100> |101> |110> |110> |101> |111> |111>

d) Controlled U gate
A controlled U gate can be represented as
controlled U = $\begin{pmatrix}1 & 0 & 0 & 0\\ 0 &1 &0 & 0\\ 0 &0 &u11 &u12 \\ 0 & 0 &u21 &u22 \end{pmatrix}$   – (A)
where U = $\begin{pmatrix}u11 &u12 \\ u21 & u22\end{pmatrix}$

e) Controlled Pauli gates
Controlled Pauli gates are created based on the following identities. The CNOT gate is a controlled Pauli X gate where controlled U is a Pauli X gate and matches the CNOT unitary matrix. Pauli gates can be constructed using

a) H x X x H = Z    &
H x H = I

b) S x X x S1
S x S1 = I

the controlled Pauli X, Y , Z are contructed using the CNOT for the controlled X in the above identities
In general a controlled Pauli gate can be created as below

f) CPauliX
Here C is the 2 x2  Identity matrix. Simulating this in my QCSimulator
CPauliX <- function(q){ I=matrix(c(1,0,0,1),nrow=2,ncol=2) # Compute 1st composite a = TensorProd(I,I) b = CNOT2_01(a) # Compute 1st composite c = TensorProd(I,I) #Take dot product d = DotProduct(c,b) #Take dot product with qubit e = DotProduct(d,q) e }

Implementing the above with I, S, H gives Pauli X, Y and Z as seen below

library(QCSimulator)
I4=matrix(c(1,0,0,0,
0,1,0,0,
0,0,1,0,
0,0,0,1),nrow=4,ncol=4)

#Controlled Pauli X
CPauliX(I4)
##      [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4]
## [1,]    1    0    0    0
## [2,]    0    1    0    0
## [3,]    0    0    0    1
## [4,]    0    0    1    0
#Controlled Pauli Y
CPauliY(I4)
##      [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4]
## [1,] 1+0i 0+0i 0+0i 0+0i
## [2,] 0+0i 1+0i 0+0i 0+0i
## [3,] 0+0i 0+0i 0+0i 0-1i
## [4,] 0+0i 0+0i 0+1i 0+0i
#Controlled Pauli Z
CPauliZ(I4)
##      [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4]
## [1,]    1    0    0    0
## [2,]    0    1    0    0
## [3,]    0    0    1    0
## [4,]    0    0    0   -1

g) CSWAP gate

q00=matrix(c(1,0,0,0),nrow=4,ncol=1)
q01=matrix(c(0,1,0,0),nrow=4,ncol=1)
q10=matrix(c(0,0,1,0),nrow=4,ncol=1)
q11=matrix(c(0,0,0,1),nrow=4,ncol=1)
CSWAP(q00)
##      [,1]
## [1,]    1
## [2,]    0
## [3,]    0
## [4,]    0
#Swap qubits
CSWAP(q01)
##      [,1]
## [1,]    0
## [2,]    0
## [3,]    1
## [4,]    0
#Swap qubits
CSWAP(q10)
##      [,1]
## [1,]    0
## [2,]    1
## [3,]    0
## [4,]    0
CSWAP(q11)
##      [,1]
## [1,]    0
## [2,]    0
## [3,]    0
## [4,]    1

h) Toffoli state
The Toffoli state creates a 3 qubit entangled state 1/2(|000> + |001> + |100> + |111>)

Simulating the Toffoli state in IBM Quantum Experience we get

h) Implementation of Toffoli state in QCSimulator

#ToffoliState <- function(q)
# Computation of the Toffoli State
H=1/sqrt(2) * matrix(c(1,1,1,-1),nrow=2,ncol=2)
I=matrix(c(1,0,0,1),nrow=2,ncol=2)

# 1st composite
# H x H x H
a = TensorProd(TensorProd(H,H),H)
# 1st CNOT
a1= CNOT3_12(a)

# 2nd composite
# I x I x T1Gate
b = TensorProd(TensorProd(I,I),T1Gate(I))
b1 = DotProduct(b,a1)
c = CNOT3_02(b1)

# 3rd composite
# I x I x TGate
d = TensorProd(TensorProd(I,I),TGate(I))
d1 = DotProduct(d,c)
e = CNOT3_12(d1)

# 4th composite
# I x I x T1Gate
f = TensorProd(TensorProd(I,I),T1Gate(I))
f1 = DotProduct(f,e)
g = CNOT3_02(f1)

#5th composite
# I x T x T
h = TensorProd(TensorProd(I,TGate(I)),TGate(I))
h1 = DotProduct(h,g)
i = CNOT3_12(h1)

#6th composite
# I x H x H
j1 = DotProduct(j,i)
k = CNOT3_12(j1)

# 7th composite
# I x H x H
l1 = DotProduct(l,k)
m = CNOT3_12(l1)
n = CNOT3_02(m)

#8th composite
# T x H x T1
o1 = DotProduct(o,n)
p = CNOT3_02(o1)
result = measurement(p)
plotMeasurement(result)

The measurement is identical to the that of IBM Quantum Experience

Conclusion:  This post looked at more Quantum gates. I have implemented all the gates in my QCSimulator which I hope to release in a couple of months.

Disclaimer: This article represents the author’s viewpoint only and doesn’t necessarily represent IBM’s positions, strategies or opinions

References
1. http://www1.gantep.edu.tr/~koc/qc/chapter4.pdf
3. https://quantumexperience.ng.bluemix.net/

Take a look at my other posts at
1. Index of posts

# Exploring Quantum Gate operations with QCSimulator

Introduction: Ever since I was initiated into Quantum Computing, through IBM’s Quantum Experience I have been hooked. My initial encounter with domain made me very excited and all wound up. The reason behind this, I think, is because there is an air of mystery around ‘Quantum’ anything.  After my early rush with the Quantum Experience, I have deliberately slowed down to digest the heady stuff.

This post also includes my early prototype of a Quantum Computing Simulator( QCSimulator) which I am creating in R. I hope to have a decent Quantum Computing simulator available, in the next couple of months. The ideas for this simulator are based on IBM’s Quantum Experience and the lectures on Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Computation by Prof Umesh Vazirani from University of California at Berkeley at edX. This calls to this simulator have been included in R Markdown file and has been published at RPubs as Quantum Computing Simulator

Disclaimer: This article represents the author’s viewpoint only and doesn’t necessarily represent IBM’s positions, strategies or opinions

In this post I explore quantum gate operations

A) Quantum Gates
Quantum gates are represented as a n x n unitary matrix. In mathematics, a complex square matrix U is unitary if its conjugate transpose Uǂ is also its inverse – that is, if
U ǂU =U U ǂ=I

a) Clifford Gates
The following gates are known as Clifford Gates and are represented as the unitary matrix below

1. Pauli X
$\begin{pmatrix}0&1\\1&0\end{pmatrix}$

2.Pauli Y
$\begin{pmatrix}0&-i\\i&0\end{pmatrix}$

3. Pauli Z
$\begin{pmatrix}1&0\\0&-1\end{pmatrix}$

1/√2 $\begin{pmatrix}1 & 1\\ 1 & -1\end{pmatrix}$

5. S Gate
$\begin{pmatrix}1 & 0\\ 0 & i\end{pmatrix}$

6. S1 Gate
$\begin{pmatrix}1 & 0\\ 0 & -i\end{pmatrix}$

7. CNOT
$\begin{pmatrix}1 & 0 & 0 &0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 &0 \\ 0& 0 & 0&1 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 0\end{pmatrix}$

b) Non-Clifford Gate
The following are the non-Clifford gates
1. Toffoli Gate
T = $\begin{pmatrix}1 & 0\\ 0 & e^{^{i\prod /4}}\end{pmatrix}$

2. Toffoli1 Gate
T1 =$\begin{pmatrix}1 & 0\\ 0 & e^{^{-i\prod /4}}\end{pmatrix}$

B) Evolution of a 1 qubit Quantum System
The diagram below shows how a 1 qubit system evolves on the application of Quantum Gates.

C) Evolution of a 2 Qubit  System
The following diagram depicts the evolution of a 2 qubit system. The 4 different maximally entangled states can be obtained by using a Hadamard and a CNOT gate to |00>, |01>, |10> & |11> resulting in the entangled states  Φ+, Ψ+, Φ, Ψrespectively

D) Verifying Unitary’ness
XXǂ = XǂX= I
TTǂ = TǂT=I
SSǂ = SǂS=I
The Uǂ  function in the simulator is
Uǂ = GateDagger(U)

E) A look at some Simulator functions
The unitary functions for the Clifford and non-Clifford gates have been implemented functions. The unitary functions can be chained together by invoking each successive Gate as argument to the function.

1. Creating the dagger function
TDagger = GateDagger(TGate)
TDagger x TGate

H
##           [,1]       [,2]
## [1,] 0.7071068  0.7071068
## [2,] 0.7071068 -0.7071068
HDagger = GateDagger(H)
HDagger
##           [,1]       [,2]
## [1,] 0.7071068  0.7071068
## [2,] 0.7071068 -0.7071068
HDagger %*% H
##      [,1] [,2]
## [1,]    1    0
## [2,]    0    1
T
##      [,1]                 [,2]
## [1,] 1+0i 0.0000000+0.0000000i
## [2,] 0+0i 0.7071068+0.7071068i
TDagger = GateDagger(T)
TDagger
##      [,1]                 [,2]
## [1,] 1+0i 0.0000000+0.0000000i
## [2,] 0+0i 0.7071068-0.7071068i
TDagger %*% T
##      [,1] [,2]
## [1,] 1+0i 0+0i
## [2,] 0+0i 1+0i

2. Angle between 2 vectors – Inner product
The angle between 2 vectors can be obtained by taking the inner product between the vectors

#1. a is the diagonal vector 1/2 |0> + 1/2 |1> and b = q0 = |0>
diagonal <-  matrix(c(1/sqrt(2),1/sqrt(2)),nrow=2,ncol=1)
q0=matrix(c(1,0),nrow=2,ncol=1)
innerProduct(diagonal,q0)
##      [,1]
## [1,]   45
#2. a = 1/2|0> + sqrt(3)/2|1> and  b= 1/sqrt(2) |0> + 1/sqrt(2) |1>
a = matrix(c(1/2,sqrt(3)/2),nrow=2,ncol=1)
b = matrix(c(1/sqrt(2),1/sqrt(2)),nrow=2,ncol=1)
innerProduct(a,b)
##      [,1]
## [1,]   15

3. Chaining Quantum Gates
For e.g.
H x q0
S x H x q0 == > SGate(Hadamard(q0))

Or
H x S x S x H x q0 == > Hadamard(SGate(SGate(Hadamard))))

# H x q0
Hadamard(q0)
##           [,1]
## [1,] 0.7071068
## [2,] 0.7071068
# S x H x q0
SGate(Hadamard(q0))
##                      [,1]
## [1,] 0.7071068+0.0000000i
## [2,] 0.0000000+0.7071068i
# H x S x S x H x q0
Hadamard(SGate(SGate(Hadamard(q0))))
##      [,1]
## [1,] 0+0i
## [2,] 1+0i
# S x T x H x T x H x q0
SGate(TGate(Hadamard(TGate(Hadamard(q0)))))
##                      [,1]
## [1,] 0.8535534+0.3535534i
## [2,] 0.1464466+0.3535534i

4. Measurement
The output of Quantum Gate operations can be measured with
measurement(a)
measurement(q0)
measurement(a)

measurement(q0)
##   0 1
## v 1 0
measurement(Hadamard(q0))
##     0   1
## v 0.5 0.5
a <- SGate(TGate(Hadamard(TGate(Hadamard(q0)))))
measurement(a)
##           0         1
## v 0.8535534 0.1464466

5. Plot the measurements

plotMeasurement(q1)

plotMeasurement(Hadamard(q0))

a = measurement(SGate(TGate(Hadamard(TGate(Hadamard(q0))))))
plotMeasurement(a)

6. Using the QCSimulator for one of the Bell tests
Here I compute the following measurement of  Bell state ZW  with the QCSimulator

When this is simulated on IBM’s Quantum Experience the result is

Below I simulate the same on my R based QCSimulator

# Compute the effect of the Composite H gate with the Identity matrix (I)
a=kronecker(H,I,"*")
a
##           [,1]      [,2]       [,3]       [,4]
## [1,] 0.7071068 0.0000000  0.7071068  0.0000000
## [2,] 0.0000000 0.7071068  0.0000000  0.7071068
## [3,] 0.7071068 0.0000000 -0.7071068  0.0000000
## [4,] 0.0000000 0.7071068  0.0000000 -0.7071068
# Compute the applcation of CNOT on this result
b = CNOT(a)
b
##           [,1]      [,2]       [,3]       [,4]
## [1,] 0.7071068 0.0000000  0.7071068  0.0000000
## [2,] 0.0000000 0.7071068  0.0000000  0.7071068
## [3,] 0.0000000 0.7071068  0.0000000 -0.7071068
## [4,] 0.7071068 0.0000000 -0.7071068  0.0000000
# Obtain the result of CNOT on q00
c = b %*% q00
c
##           [,1]
## [1,] 0.7071068
## [2,] 0.0000000
## [3,] 0.0000000
## [4,] 0.7071068
# Compute the effect of the composite HxTxHxS gates and the Identity matrix(I) for measurement
e=kronecker(I, d,"*")

# Applying  the composite gate on the output 'c'
f = e %*% c
# Measure the output
g <- measurement(f)
g
##          00        01        10        11
## v 0.4267767 0.0732233 0.0732233 0.4267767
#Plot the measurement
plotMeasurement(g)
`

aa
which is exactly the result obtained with IBM’s Quantum Experience!

Conclusion : In  this post I dwell on 1 and 2-qubit quantum gates and explore their operation. I have started to construct a  R based Quantum Computing Simulator. I hope to have a reasonable simulator in the next couple of months. Let’s see.

Watch this space!

Disclaimer: This article represents the author’s viewpoint only and doesn’t necessarily represent IBM’s positions, strategies or opinions